Federal State Budget Scientific Institution
Federal Research Center "Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS"

Remote Sensing Department

CRDF project UG2-2425-SE-02
"Improved Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of the Aegean-Black Sea Exchange"

Project   |   Results

US Coordinator: Tom S. Hopkins, North Carolina State University, USA
Ukraine Coordinator: Evgeny M. Lemeshko, Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukraine


Field Data Collection:

Remote Sensing Data Collection:


Fig.   Tp-ERS 18415 for 2-11 June, 2000 Habs, [cm] SST AVHRR and SeaWiFS on June 11, 2000: saline water reach to Athos buoy (arrow marks the buoy position) – cf. slide 9.

Fig.   SST AVHRR NOAA and SeaWiFS Chl "a" on 25 June, 2002.


Ongoing research:

Water exchange in the Black and Aegean seas system based on the joint assessment of water and salt budgets:

The Black-Aegean Seas System:

  • Sea of Azov (separated by the Kerch Str.);
  • NW Black Sea shelf (<100m, sep. by latitude 44°40’N);
  • Deep Black Sea (sep. by the Bosporus St.)*;
  • Sea of Marmara (sep. by the Dardanelle St.);
  • North Aegean Sea (sep. by lat. 38°30’N);
  • South Aegean Sea (sep. by Cretan Straits).
* Deep BS can be geographically divided by longitude 34°E, but Western and Eastern parts of the Deep Black Sea are almost the same in mean salinity profiles

Results: 1 basin, 1 layer (The Black Sea):

Results: 2 basins, 2 layers (1960-1998):

Kerch St.
Fw = 245
Fw = -4

Qout = 16
Black Sea
S = 18.17 psu
T2 = 24 yrs

Marmara Sea
S = 26.7 psu
T2 = 0.24 yrs

Qout = 1458

Qz = 1276

Qe = 264

Qz = 51

Qe = 921
North Aegean
S = 38.8 psu

Black Sea
S = 22.09 psu
T2 = 349 yrs

Qin = 264
Marmara Sea
S = 38.3 psu
T2 = 3 yrs

Qin = 1185

Table. Some other estimations of advective fluxes (km3/year) through the Turkish Straits

Source: Advective fluxes,
Advective fluxes,
U. Unluata et al., 1990
(balance estimates)
612 312 -300 1257 957 -300
MB UHMI (mean values for
1960-1998 Black Sea
water balance)
411 153 -258 - - -
Ozsoy et al., 1996 (mean
values of ADCP measurements
for 1991-1995)
540 115 -425 - - -
Maderich and Ilyin, this
issue (mean values of model
results for 1969-1999)
545 244 -301 1237 940 -297

QEn – vertical entrainment flow from the deep layer directed upward;
QZn – vertical turbulent exchange flow between surface and deep layers balancing salinities in the basin

In estimating the basin exchange flows by Thermohaline Exchange Method
[T. S.Hopkins 1999 J.Marine Systems 20; 2001 Scientia Marina, 65]:

The Water Balance creates the Force
The Force drives the Exchange
The Exchange then modifies the Force
Fig. The two-way thermohaline exchange through a strait: a) the pressure differences, b) the baroclinic, barotropic, frictional and combined velocity profiles.





or   (6)



Fig.   The Black Sea Water Balance and Surface Salinity from 1963 to 1993, in km3/mo & ppt. The Water Balance is green & the Salinity is orange.

Fig.   Example of the phasing between the Black Sea Water Balance, Outflow & Inflow, in km3/month from Apr 1943 to Oct 1958 [by Thermohaline Exchange Method] .

In estimating the basin exchange flows by two-layer hydraulics model:

Fig.   From observation: Sea surface salinity of the Marmara Sea (S.Besiktepe, 1994).

Fig.   Comparison: Hydraulic + mixing model results.

Exchange flow in Dardanelle strait by 3D non-hydrostatic model:


Project   |   Results
Remote Sensing Department (together with LLC "DVS LTD")
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Research Center "Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS"
2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 299011, Russian Federation
Phone: +7 (8692) 54-50-65
© 2002—2020

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