LLC
«DVS LTD»

Federal State Budget Scientific Institution
Federal Research Center "Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS"

Remote Sensing Department


CRDF project UG2-2425-SE-02
"Improved Methodology for Assessing the Impacts of the Aegean-Black Sea Exchange"


Project   |   Results

US Coordinator: Tom S. Hopkins, North Carolina State University, USA
Ukraine Coordinator: Evgeny M. Lemeshko, Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukraine

Objectives:

Field Data Collection:

Remote Sensing Data Collection:

                                             

Fig.   Tp-ERS 18415 for 2-11 June, 2000 Habs, [cm] SST AVHRR and SeaWiFS on June 11, 2000: saline water reach to Athos buoy (arrow marks the buoy position) – cf. slide 9.

Fig.   SST AVHRR NOAA and SeaWiFS Chl "a" on 25 June, 2002.

Summary:

Ongoing research:

Water exchange in the Black and Aegean seas system based on the joint assessment of water and salt budgets:

The Black-Aegean Seas System:

Regioning:
  • Sea of Azov (separated by the Kerch Str.);
  • NW Black Sea shelf (<100m, sep. by latitude 44°40’N);
  • Deep Black Sea (sep. by the Bosporus St.)*;
  • Sea of Marmara (sep. by the Dardanelle St.);
  • North Aegean Sea (sep. by lat. 38°30’N);
  • South Aegean Sea (sep. by Cretan Straits).
* Deep BS can be geographically divided by longitude 34°E, but Western and Eastern parts of the Deep Black Sea are almost the same in mean salinity profiles

Results: 1 basin, 1 layer (The Black Sea):

Results: 2 basins, 2 layers (1960-1998):

Kerch St.
Fw = 245
Bosporus
Fw = -4
Dardanelles

Qout = 16
Black Sea
surface
S = 18.17 psu
T2 = 24 yrs

Qout=541
Marmara Sea
surface
S = 26.7 psu
T2 = 0.24 yrs

Qout = 1458


Qz = 1276

Qe = 264


Qz = 51

Qe = 921
North Aegean
deep:
S = 38.8 psu

Black Sea
deep
S = 22.09 psu
T2 = 349 yrs

Qin = 264
Marmara Sea
deep
S = 38.3 psu
T2 = 3 yrs

Qin = 1185

Table. Some other estimations of advective fluxes (km3/year) through the Turkish Straits

Source: Advective fluxes,
Bosporus
Advective fluxes,
Dardanelles
QOUT QIN QIN - QOUT QOUT QIN QIN - QOUT
U. Unluata et al., 1990
(balance estimates)
612 312 -300 1257 957 -300
MB UHMI (mean values for
1960-1998 Black Sea
water balance)
411 153 -258 - - -
Ozsoy et al., 1996 (mean
values of ADCP measurements
for 1991-1995)
540 115 -425 - - -
Maderich and Ilyin, this
issue (mean values of model
results for 1969-1999)
545 244 -301 1237 940 -297

QEn – vertical entrainment flow from the deep layer directed upward;
QZn – vertical turbulent exchange flow between surface and deep layers balancing salinities in the basin

In estimating the basin exchange flows by Thermohaline Exchange Method
[T. S.Hopkins 1999 J.Marine Systems 20; 2001 Scientia Marina, 65]:

The Water Balance creates the Force
The Force drives the Exchange
The Exchange then modifies the Force
Fig. The two-way thermohaline exchange through a strait: a) the pressure differences, b) the baroclinic, barotropic, frictional and combined velocity profiles.
  (1)

  (2)

  (3)

  (4)

  (5)

or   (6)

  (7)

  (8)

Fig.   The Black Sea Water Balance and Surface Salinity from 1963 to 1993, in km3/mo & ppt. The Water Balance is green & the Salinity is orange.

Fig.   Example of the phasing between the Black Sea Water Balance, Outflow & Inflow, in km3/month from Apr 1943 to Oct 1958 [by Thermohaline Exchange Method] .

In estimating the basin exchange flows by two-layer hydraulics model:

Fig.   From observation: Sea surface salinity of the Marmara Sea (S.Besiktepe et.al., 1994).

Fig.   Comparison: Hydraulic + mixing model results.

Exchange flow in Dardanelle strait by 3D non-hydrostatic model:

Conclusions:


Project   |   Results
Remote Sensing Department (together with LLC "DVS LTD")
Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Research Center "Marine Hydrophysical Institute of RAS"
2, Kapitanskaya St., Sevastopol, 299011, Russian Federation
Phone: +7 (8692) 54-50-65
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